Bandelier Monument is named after an anthropologist, Adolph Bandelier. The ruins are considered the ancestral home of the Cochiti Pueblo Indians. It was orginally inhabited by people known as the Anasazi. The monument is located in the Frijoles Canyon (Bean Canyon) with the Tyuonyi village at the floor and several homes built in the cliffs.
The area, known as the Rio Grande Valley, was inhabited from the 600's to the 1600's. People started forming this community around 1150 and stayed for about 500 years and then spread out to smaller surrounding communities. Buildings were built at the entrances of natural caves in the cliff. This was used for defense and convenience.